To Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Various Anti-heliminthics against Ascariasis Lumbricoides among a Study Population in North India
Introduction: More than 24% of the world’s population, are infected with soil-transmitted helminth infection. Aim: To assess the helminthic load & efficacy and safety of various antiheliminthics. Methods: A total of 400 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited after proper consent. Subjects were divided into Four groups (100 each) randomly & receive different anti- helminthic drugs. Cure rate and egg reduction rate was used as a primary outcome measure. Three weeks later two more stool samples were analyzed by two methods 1) Direct Smear method & 2) Concentration method. On follow-up, each group were randomly assigned a single dose of albendazole (single 400 mg dose), mebendazole (100 mg, BD×3 days), pyrantel pamoate (11 mg/kg orally once) and ivermectin (0.2 mg/kg orally once) using a randomization procedure.The data was statistically analysed. Observations: Among 400 patients, 63% were 5-19 years of age, 68% were male, 73.5% were from rural areas, 71% were literate, 62% were in the low income group, 58% reported closed sanitation, 6.75% were having low BMI, 26.25% were having High Absolute Eosinophilic Count before treatment, 77.5% were non-anaemic. 92.5% did not have icterus. In the present study it was seen that the difference among the four drugs was statistically significant as per demographic variables. Significant decrease of worm load after treatment were comparable with each other. However, Presence of Worm across papillae seen after upper GI endoscopy and persistent biliary ascariasis was comparable in all the four drug groups. Overall, the efficacy of anthelmintic drugs was excellent and statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Albendazole and mebendazole having cure rates of 90% and also reducing the mean egg count by 90%. Also treatment of school children every 4 monthly may be necessary in high endemic areas, like ours. All these drugs which we used in our study are safe and no significant side effects were observed.