Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma presenting as early heart failure: An autopsy case report
Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHHE) is the most common type of hepatic vascular tumor in infancy, but is rarely reported because of the low incidence estimated to be about 1/20,000. We report an autopsy case of IHHE in a 20‑day‑old female who came with an initial manifestation of abdominal distension and congestive heart failure (CHF). Symptoms of cardiac decompensation gradually worsened in spite of treatment and child died within 2 days. On autopsy, grossly enlarged liver showed microscopy of large ecstatic vascular channels lined by single layer of plump endothelial cells and diagnosis was given as Type I IHHE. CHF is common complication due to arteriovenous shunts within the tumor and contributes to high morbidity and mortality in up to 70% of untreated infants with median age of presentation of 1‑month. Therefore, if symptoms develop, aggressive treatments are warranted.